Crumbling pipes, tainted water plague black communities

Politics of the Fur Trade: The Fort Union Trading Post clay tobacco pipe collection and analysis of the collection will serve as a basis for developing a time line for clay tobacco pipes used during the early and middle 19th century fur trade. Fort Union trading post was located at the junction of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. Fort Union, in present day North Dakota, was located at the junction of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers, the perfect position to function as the major trade distribution and collection center in the Upper Missouri region Figure 1. With the decision to interpret the post with NPS on-site reconstruction, the NPS Midwest Archeological Center carried out excavations, largely for the purpose of gathering information about the historic structures for the reconstruction. This work took place in and again from Through these investigations, over , artifacts, including an estimated 10, tobacco pipe fragments, were recovered. This large and diverse assemblage of clay tobacco pipes offers a unique opportunity to observe chronological changes in pipe styles. Politics were also reflected in a less obvious way through the growth of the American clay pipe industry as well as continued influx of pipes from other countries. This paper focuses on the Presidential Candidate pipes in the assemblage.

The Art and Archaeology of Clay Pipes

The skill and experience of the individual undertaking the work will play a large part in determining how accurate and reliable any assessment of dating is, and specialist advice should certainly be taken when dealing with large assemblages or those where the pipe dating is fundamental to the excavated deposits. But it is certainly possible for a good assessment of date to be made by considering the key characteristics of any given pipe or pipe assemblage, guidelines for which are given below.

They can be used to indicate whether a context group is likely to contain residual material, or whether it represents a coherent and potentially tightly dated group. They can also be used to check any dates provided by associated bowl forms, marks or decoration, which can be especially useful for smaller contexts where only a few such pieces are present. There are always exceptions but, in broad terms, stems can usually be allocated to one of three general date ranges by assessing their form, stem bore, fabric and finish.

As a result, fragments usually show a clear taper along their length and can be quite chunky if the fragment comes from near the bowl.

English made Red Clay pipes that conform more to the white clay pipe styles seem to have most of their markings along the stem. Marx illustrated the English Red .

From to the collection was on display in an art gallery at Frederiksplein , Amsterdam. The focus was mainly on clay tobacco pipes for which Holland has been famous. In the Pijpenkabinet moved to Leiden , where it functioned as a public museum until The collection was enlarged with historic and ethnographic items. The museum actively published its scientific historic research.

In the Pijpenkabinet moved to its present location in Amsterdam.

W. White Co Clay Pipe from Glasgow found…

Select the image above to see the pipe in 3D “Dr. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Description The pipe is mm long, the bowl is 29mm high and the stem between 10mm and 14mm thick. A small fragment is missing from the rim of the bowl and part of the mouthpiece end of the stem is also lost.

he dating of a pipe fragment relies on assessing a whole range of variables to do with its fabric, manufacturing techniques, bowl form, style, finish, marks and decoration.

This meant that the design of houses in ancient Egypt varied little, even among the wealthy. This makes it very easy to imagine what Egyptian houses look like. The oldest houses were built of mud and papyrus. The Nile River flooded for three months every year and literally washed these houses away. Allowed to dry in the sun, mud-bricks lasted much longer than houses made of mud and papyrus, but rain still eventually eroded them. It was used to support doorways, ceilings and steps.

Slaves and children as young as four were left to the menial job of making mud-bricks. They would transport the clay and mud, make the bricks and also transport the dried bricks to the building site. Almost all ancient Egypt houses were constructed with a flat roof. Not only did this most likely make the construction process simpler, but the flat roofs also offered a welcome respite from the burning Egyptian sun. Families often lounged, ate and slept on the roofs of ancient Egypt houses.

Photo by Iris Fernandez

The King of Pipes: The Meerschaum

Often we come across pipe stems or bowl fragments that bear some sort of markings and here is some info: First operation was in Pentonville, England and dates from to His name was stamped on the bowl. The second was in Stepney, England his name and Stepney stamped on bowl dates from to

Evolution of clay tobacco pipes in England Clay tobacco pipes were made in England shortly after the introduction of tobacco from North America, in about The earliest written description of smoking was in and probably described a pipe derived from native North American types. By the pipe bowl had become barrel-shaped with a flat heel and around ¼” (6mm) inside diameter.

The Art and Archaeology of Clay Pipes A short history of Clay Pipes is presented here along with photographs for your enjoyment and for help in identification. Please note these images are copyright and you should write to me if you wish to use them in your publications. The earliest clay pipes known in England and Europe are generally thought to date from c. English mariners setting up the first colonies there were introduced to smoking which was cermonial but it was not long before smoking was taken up as a habit by mariners who travelled from port to port around the globe.

The site of Historic Jamestown has recovered early examples during archaeological excavations and Sir Walter Raleigh’s Colony at Roanoke Island is one of the places where the clay pipe was seen and recorded by John White. Although the use of tobacco leaves was known by Europeans since the time of Columbus in only small amounts were brought back as an exotic herb for medicinal experimentation at first.

A Peterson Dating Guide; A Rule of Thumb

No changes are apparent. The Legacy of the Turnpikes. Phase 1 — Western Somerset.

A group of typical English clay pipes dating from the early Victorian period. These have very delicate thin walled bowls and often a narrow pointed spur with initials of the maker on the side. Ribs, Scallops and Leaf designs were common then often also incorporating symbolism for taverns or masonics.

A publicly available display highlighting the NPA’s holdings and research can be seen in the Victoria Gallery and Museum at the University of Liverpool and the NPA’s extensive collections can be consulted by prior appointment. This website has been set up provide a guide to our collections and to make some of the more significant elements of it available online. In particular, these pages are intended to help you with all your pipe related queries and to provide a ‘one stop shop’ for anyone trying to identify pipes or prepare a report on excavated material.

Although the bulk of our holdings relate to the clay tobacco pipe industry, our extensive collections also include pipes made of all materials – briar, porcelain, metal etc. So how can we help? Find by location will provide you with an interative map of the British Isles that will tell you what digital resources we currently have available for your chosen area. A full copy of the “How To Our Collections pages will give you a lot more information about what the Archive holds.

“Almost everything you could wish to know about Clay Tobacco Pipes”

In 7 short articles you can learn how to smoke a pipe! I encourage you to take the time to read through the Not-So Boring Guide to Pipe Smoking which is written especially for pipe smoking beginners. The guide is 6 pages and will help you choose your first pipe as well as choosing your first pipe tobacco. All the information you need to start smoking pipes is just a click away. Introduction to Pipe Smoking for Beginners Smoking pipes is really all about relaxation.

The metal ferrules on Peterson clay pipes during the Patent Era are angular while their clay pipes of World War Two will have the bend shape as do most of the Peterson pipes from then until now. As with everything pertaining to the dating of Peterson pipes, this method can only give us a hint to the age of the pipe but it is better than nothing.

When I was working on one of the first Peterson pipes that came my way I remember writing then calling Mike Leverette and seeking his help in dating the little Pre-Republic pipe I had in hand. Mike directed me to this article of his on Pipelore. It became my go to piece when seeking information on Petersons. Mike died in , following a long battle with cancer. This guide first appeared in pipelore. Introduction The history of Ireland is an old and honourable one; steeped in warfare, family, racial and religious traditions.

No other country can compete in comparison. However, the first couple of millennia of Irish history have no relevance to this dating guide. History pertinent to our purposes began in the year ; the year Charles Peterson opened a small tobacco shop in Dublin.

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