School of Theology and Ministry

My thinking is that there are some evidences or characteristics that lean toward possibility of first century. First of all is to compare its style — wisdom sayings — to the hypothetical Q gospel, which is also wisdom sayings. The quasi-biographical Synoptic Gospels, in contrast, are definitely more complex writings and also are expressive of greater complexity as to motive and purpose in reflecting the goals of respective authors. In contrast, the wisdom sayings gospels merely convey the wisdom sayings teaching concepts themselves without attempt in elaboration of theology as, say, commentary. If the hypothetical Q Gospel existed as a manuscript it would have preceded Matthew and Luke as these two of the Synoptic Gospels both have the Q material and indeed that is what defines Q — that which is in both Matthew and Luke but not in Mark. The Gospel of Thomas shares verses, or has parallel forms, across all three of the Synoptic Gospels. If Mark is the earliest of these gospels, then the Gospel of Thomas is thereby positioned to perhaps be even earlier.

The Gospel of John

This fragment is at the John Rylands Library at Manchester. It contains the passion narrative, John xviii. P52 was part of a book. SO finally among the books of the New Testament we turn to the rest of the Johannine literature. It is appropriate and relevant to put it this way because whatever the relationship between the Apocalypse and the gospel and epistles traditionally ascribed to St John there are implications to be drawn. Fortunately there is no need here to seek to establish in advance the authorship of all or indeed any of the books mentioned – or this chapter would have to be far longer than in any case it is.

Aug 31,  · The Gospels, the first four books of the New Testament, tell the story of the life of only one—the Gospel of John—claims to be an eyewitness account, the testimony of the unnamed “disciple whom Jesus loved.” (“This is the disciple who is testifying to these things and wrote these things, and we know that his testimony is true” [John ]).

The Protestant New Testament scholar Eldon Jay Epp in advanced the thesis that the attitude toward the Jews that finds expression in This leads to the conclusion that the Fourth Gospel, more than any other book in the canonical body of Christian writings, is responsible for the frequent anti-Semitic expressions by Christians during the past eighteen or nineteen centuries, and particularly for the unfortunate and still existent characterization of the Jewish people by some Christians as ‘Christ-killers.

Nevertheless, Christians, historically, have not read John in this way, says Ruether, because the gospel does not, in fact, demythologize the Jews. Rather, it mythologizes the distinction between two modes of existence, the believing and authentic over against unbelieving and unauthentic, by identifying them with two historically and empirically distinct communities, the Christian and the Jewish.

Whatever may be said about John on this score, modern exegetes agree that it does not represent the views of Jesus or his original disciples. In fact, the earliest Christians did not think of themselves as members of a new religion separate from Judaism. Yet from the beginning Jesus and his disciples represented something new. As to the Law, Jesus did not reject it, but set about interpreting it anew for a new day. The famous statement in Matthew 5: It can reasonably be argued that on Jesus’ lips such a statement would have been superfluous.

He and his followers, as well as his hearers, would have assumed as much. However that may be, Jesus certainly reckoned most seriously with the Jewish belief that God had spoken, that his will was concretized in Law, and that the Hebrew Scriptures were a faithful account of his speaking.

Dating the Gospel of Thomas

Who wrote John’s Gospel? The Evidence says that it can come as quite a shock to discover that no-one can even be sure who wrote the gospels. Despite the versions printed in our Bibles long having borne the names Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, these names are mere attributions, and even as such are rather less reliable than attributions given to unsigned works of art.

The gospels were all written anonymously and only attributed to the disciples whose names they now bear later in the second century. The Church Fathers of the second century noticed that this Gospel does not mention the disciple John, and so assumed that its ‘disciple whon Jesus loved’ must be John.

“STM takes formation – intellectual, spiritual, pastoral, and personal – very seriously. Such formation is not an end in itself, however. Indeed, the study of theology is ultimately about transformation. We want our graduates to be leaders and agents of transformation in the Church and in the.

When was the Gospel of Matthew Written? If the Gospel of Matthew was written after 70 C. For example, in Matt Is there any evidence this parable was added to a pre C. Three pieces of evidence have usually been advanced to demonstrate that Matthew wrote after 70 C. First, Matthew is dependent upon the Gospel of Mark and Mark is normally dated to the late 60s or early 70s. Secondly, the Gospel of Matthew has a developed Christology, which suggests a late date towards the end of the first century.

Dating the Book of Revelation

If it can be established that the gospels were written early, say before the year 70 A. If they were written by the disciples, then their reliability, authenticity, and accuracy are better substantiated. Also, if they were written early, this would mean that there would not have been enough time for myth to creep into the gospel accounts since it was the eyewitnesses to Christ’s life that wrote them. Furthermore, those who were alive at the time of the events could have countered the gospel accounts and since we have no contradictory writings to the gospels, their early authorship as well as apostolic authorship becomes even more critical.

Destruction of the temple in 70 A. This is significant because Jesus had prophesied its destruction when He said, “As for these things which you are looking at, the days will come in which there will not be left one stone upon another which will not be torn down,” Luke

Evangelium Secundum Ioannem [Paris: Lethielleux, ] ; A. J. Köstenberger, John [ECNT] [Grand Rapids: Baker, ] ), since the equative verb is never used as such in the NT and perhaps not anywhere else either, because it apparently does not fit the semantic requirements of the historical present (D. B. Wallace, “John 5,2 and the Date of the Fourth Gospel,” Bib 71 [] ).

But how do we know which of the Apostles is “the one Jesus loved”? The Synoptic Gospels identify 3 Apostles that Jesus singled out on important occasions. These were Peter, to whom Jesus gave the “keys of the kingdom”, James, the son of Zebedee, and James’ younger brother, the Apostle John. We can narrow down the identity of the inspired writer of the fourth Gospel to one of these 3 men and, by eliminating the other 2, we can come to one final name. The “beloved disciple” who authors the fourth Gospel cannot be Peter because the fourth Gospel records that on several occasions Peter was accompanied by the “beloved disciple” John James Zebedee is eliminated as a candidate for the “beloved disciple” by the fact that he was the first Apostle to be martyred circa 42AD.

We have an accurate date for his martyrdom not only from Christian sources Acts This fact eliminates James because the fourth Gospel was written at least 25 years after his death. That only leaves John, son of Zebedee as the “beloved disciple”. A variety of arguments against John’s inspired authorship of the fourth Gospel are centered on the linguistically and stylized differences between the fourth Gospel and the 3 Epistles attributed to John and the Book of Revelation only in Revelation does the name “John” actually appear as the one who wrote down the visions.

This argument fails to acknowledge the fact that there are many common expressions and themes used in the Gospel and in the Epistles and Revelation. For example compare these few verses from the fourth Gospel with 1 John:

The Origins of John’s Gospel

Thursday, January 21, Dating the Gospels: Of the Gospels however, Synoptic Gospels plus the 4th Gospel, they begin with the book of Mark, the earliest of all the Gospels. General consensus among scholars is that it was written circa A.

A brief look at issues of authorship, dating and provenance of John’s Gospel, reaching alignment with what might be described as the more biblically conservative positions.

In his early life he was a fisherman Mark 1: He is probably the unnamed disciple of John the Baptist mentioned in John 1: Later he received a call to be a disciple of Jesus Christ Matt. He wrote the Gospel of John, three epistles, and the book of Revelation. In his own writings he refers to himself as the disciple whom Jesus loved John There are frequent references to him in the accounts of the Crucifixion and Resurrection Luke John was later banished to Patmos, where he wrote the book of Revelation Rev.

When Were the Gospels Written?

Whereas beforehand a late authorship meant the fourth gospel was once considered insignificant in historical Jesus studies, it is now becoming clear that John is just as important as the synoptic Gospels Matthew, Mark and Luke in understanding the cultural setting in which Jesus of Nazareth lived. In a recent lecture in Jerusalem, Dr. Charlesworth — professor of New Testament language and literature, and editor of the Dead Sea Scrolls Project at Princeton Theological Seminary — claimed that this paradigm shift goes beyond the question of dating the Gospel of John and investigating the life setting of Jesus.

The new archaeological finds also have triggered a shift in thinking about the Jewishness of the Gospel of John and its perceived anti-Semitic and anti-Judaic polemic. Late date, low view The Gospel of John has historically been considered the least Jewish of the four gospels.

The Dating of the Fourth Gospel. Scholars, ancient and modern, do agree that the fourth Gospel was the last to be written. that Polycrates identifies “John” as the one “who leaned on the Lord’s breast” and therefore the author of the fourth Gospel (see Gospel of John ).

This New Testament text is generally believed to have been written after the other gospels Mark, Matthew and Luke. I think there are several good reasons to accept this claim, given the historical and textual evidence: John, on the other hand, seldom takes the time to provide any detail about each follower of Jesus as he introduces them in his account. John writes as though this information is already available to his readers in the gospels that preceded his. There are good reasons to accept the claim that John wrote his account after the other gospel accounts had already been written.

But does this mean that it was written late in history? If this is true, the gospel could not have been written by the Apostle John or anyone else who actually witnessed the life and ministry of Jesus of Nazareth. I also believe this gospel was written early; within the lifetime of people who witnessed the events it records. This is important, because the early dating of the Gospels helps to establish their reliability as eyewitness accounts.

Here is a very brief summary of the evidence establishing the early dating of the Gospel of John:

John 1 The Word Became Flesh In The Bible Gateway

Christology John’s “high Christology” depicts Jesus as divine, preexistent, and identified with the one God, [41] talking openly about his divine role and echoing Yahweh ‘s ” I Am that I Am ” with seven ” I Am ” declarations of his own. In Ancient Greek philosophy , the term logos meant the principle of cosmic reason. In this sense, it was similar to the Hebrew concept of Wisdom , God’s companion and intimate helper in creation. The Hellenistic Jewish philosopher Philo merged these two themes when he described the Logos as God’s creator of and mediator with the material world.

The evangelist adapted Philo’s description of the Logos, applying it to Jesus, the incarnation of the Logos.

Kysar states concerning the dating of the Gospel of John: “Those who relate the expulsion to a formal effort on the part of Judaism to purge itself of Christian believers link the composition of the gospel with a date soon after the Council of Jamnia, which is supposed to have promulgated such an action.

Summary Summary of the Gospel of John This summary of the Gospel of John provides information about the title, author s , date of writing, chronology, theme, theology, outline, a brief overview, and the chapters of the Gospel of John. Author The author is the apostle John, “the disciple whom Jesus loved” He was prominent in the early church but is not mentioned by name in this Gospel — which would be natural if he wrote it, but hard to explain otherwise.

The author knew Jewish life well, as seen from references to popular Messianic speculations see, e. He knew the geography of the Holy Land, locating Bethany about 15 stadia about two miles from Jerusalem The Gospel of John has many touches that appear to reflect the recollections of an eyewitness — such as the house at Bethany being filled with the fragrance of the broken perfume jar see Early writers such as Irenaeus and Tertullian say that John wrote this Gospel, and all other evidence agrees see Introduction to 1 John: Date In general, two views of the dating of this Gospel have been advocated: The traditional view places it toward the end of the first century, c.

More recently, some interpreters have suggested an earlier date, perhaps as early as the 50s and no later than

Tag: Gospel of John

The Book of John I. Title The title of the book is taken from the name of the traditional author, the apostle John. Author and Setting A. Author and Date The most important witness in the early Church to the authorship of the gospel is Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons in the last quarter of the second century. That Irenaeus would affirm John’s authorship is significant because he was acquainted with Polycarp, who had been a companion of John.

Other early church fathers who affirmed John’s authorship include Eusebius, Polycrates and Clement of Alexandria.

Date of John’s Gospel. We recently re-posted Russell Grigg’s classic article John the Creation Evangelist, which is still as relevant now as it was when it was first published almost 20 years ago. But Kimbal B. from the USA took issue with the article’s assignment of a late date to John’s Gospel.

Mark, whom Matthew and Luke follow in essentials, gives us a precise dating: And when it was evening he came with the Twelve” The evening of the first day of Unleavened Bread, on which the Paschal lambs are slaughtered in the Temple, is the vigil of the Passover feast. According to the chronology of the Synoptics, this was a Thursday. After sunset, the Passover began, and then the Passover meal was taken — by Jesus and his disciples, as indeed by all the pilgrims who had come to Jerusalem.

On the night leading into Friday, then — still according to the Synoptic chronology — Jesus was arrested and brought before the court; on Friday morning he was condemned to death by Pilate, and subsequently, “around the third hour” ca. Jesus died at the ninth hour ca.

When were the gospels written and by whom?

The reasons for the conclusion that the Gospel of John was written after the letters of Paul, the Synoptic gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke , and many of the later letters, is based on a variety of evidences that when considered collectively suggest a post AD composition. Perhaps the most basic assumption regarding the date of composition of the Gospel of John is its theology in comparison to the other three gospels.

Specifically, the fourth gospel emphasizes the divinity of Jesus and his premortal role as deity John 1:

plete text of John’s Gospel dated by experts at approximately the end of the sec-ond century Thus, in these three recently published materials we have manu-scripts for John’s Gospel that are earlier than for any other New Testament book Archaeology has disproved many .

Dating the Book of Revelation With the dating of Revelation, you establish the true historical prospective. If you date it early, you have its fulfillment in God’s judgment on Israel. If you date it late, you have every man’s idea. So dating plays a very important part in its interpretation. There are differences of opinion as to when this book was written. These can be summed up as the “late date” and the “early date” theories. First, we’ll cover the late date theory.

Then we’ll examine the facts which support the early date theory. For that was seen no very long time since, but almost in our day, towards the end of Domitian’s reign. First, Irenaeus did not witness this. He referred to Polycarp who supposedly knew the apostle John. According to Irenaeus recollection, Polycarp saw “it” sometime in AD , during the last part Domitian’s reign. Thirdly, we do not know if the “it” Polycarp was referring to was John, the visions he saw, the name of anti-christ, or the book itself and we do not know if he meant that the book was written at that time or not.

4. The Reliability of the New Testament (Authorship & Dating)